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- There is a growing consensus on the existence of patterns of Internet consolidation in the various sectors of the digital economy. The fact that a handful of platforms facilitate most online activities has societal consequences. Though they provide a myriad of opportunities, they also tend to mobilise US-based values and norms, and thus fail to adapt to individuals’ specific needs globally.
- Competition rules need not only to be enforced, but also adapted to the challenges of the new digital environment. Rules need to be updated in order to better monitor platforms’ market power and acquisition strategies. States should address the issue of the responsibility of these players, and ensure the same level playing field for all actors.
- Consolidation results from market trends, but it is also affected by the nature of the technologies. Centralisation of services creates new security threats and vulnerabilities. At the technical level, industry actors should increase the interoperability of their interfaces, encourage greater collaboration between small players, as well as ensure stronger security measures (end-to-end encryption and data minimisation).
- The concentration of market power needs to be better understood. The root causes of Internet consolidation, as well as ways to measure its scale, need further study. Such research could feed into policies supporting models of co-operative platform economy. However, regulatory responses must not interfere with the Internet’s underlying principles.