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- Media literacy and news literacy hand-in-hand are the solution to disinformation crisis. To educate users – especially younger ones – effectively, the issue needs to be unpacked and correctly framed first (e.g. avoid the incorrect term ‘fake news’ and use ‘disinformation or ‘misinformation’ instead).
- Users are more likely to become critical towards misinformation if they see how such disinformation is constructed practically – as the fake news game and study illustrate.
- Disinformation is usually characterised by impersonation, appeal to emotions, polarised framing, a conspiracy mindset towards institutions and/or the media, discreditation of institutions and/or individuals, and trolling behaviour.
- While building news literacy it is difficult to balance between critical thinking and destructive thinking, namely, to balance between awareness raising and a critical mindset towards misinformation on the one hand, and the danger of spreading mistrust or cynicism towards news per se on the other.