1 See Annex I for the Panel’s terms of reference.
2 United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development, Mapping of international Internet public policy issues, 17 April 2015, E/CN.16/2015/CRP.2, available at https://unctad.org/meetings/en/SessionalDocuments/ecn162015crp2_en.pdf
3 GIP Digital Watch Observatory, May 2019, available at https://dig.watch/mechanisms
4 AI Impacts, “Trends in the cost of computing”, 10 March 2015, available at https://aiimpacts.org/trends-in-the-cost-of-computing/
5 Internet World Stats, “World Internet users and population statistics”, March 2019, available at https://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm; and IoT Analytics, “State of the IoT 2018: Number of IoT devices now at 7B – Market accelerating”, August 2018, available at https://iot-analytics.com/state-of-the-iot-update-q1-q2-2018-number-of-iot-devices-now-7b/
6 The World Bank, Global Findex Database 2017, April 2018, available at https://globalfindex.worldbank.org
7 Council on Foreign Relations, “Hate Speech on Social Media: Global Comparisons”, 11 April 2019, available at https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/hate-speech-social-media-global-comparisons; United Nations General Assembly, resolution on the right to privacy in the digital age (A/RES/73/179), December 2018, available at https://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/73/179; FireEye, M-Trends 2019 (Annual Threat Report), 2019, available at https://content.fireeye.com/m-trends; Freedom House, “Freedom on the Net 2018: The rise of digital authoritarianism”, October 2018, available at https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-net/freedom-net-2018/rise-digital-authoritarianism
8 Internet World Stats, “World Internet users and population statistics”, March 2019, available at https://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
9 The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is one of the many entities that recognise the multiple dimensions of the digital divide and work toward facilitating digital inclusion of marginalised groups. More details at ITU, Digital Inclusion, available at https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Digital-Inclusion/Pages/default.aspx
10 Our public call for contributions received a number of suggestions on values, available at www.digitalcooperation.org/responses. We also engaged a diverse set of stakeholders and experts to elicit relevant values and how they could be embedded in policy approaches and cooperation architectures. Our engagement built on a recent surge of interest in values and ethics in the digital context: see Future of Life Institute, Asilomar Principles, 2017, available at https://futureoflife.org/ai-principles/; WEF White Paper on Values, Ethics and Innovation, August 2018, available at http://www3.weforum. org/docs/WEF_WP_Values_Ethics_Innovation_2018.pdf ; Montreal Declaration for a responsible development of AI, 2018, available at https://www.montrealdeclaration-responsibleai.com/the-declaration; the World Wide Web Foundation’s Contract for the Web, available at https://contractfortheweb.org; the EU High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence’s Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence, 2019, available at https://ec.europa.eu/futurium/en/ai-alliance-consultation/guidelines#Top
11 WEF report “Our Shared Digital Future Building an Inclusive, Trustworthy and Sustainable Digital Society”, December 2018, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Our_Shared_Digital_Future_Report_2018.pdf
12 For an introduction to the underlying technology trends and impact on the economy, see “Vectors of Digital Transformation”, OECD Digital Economy Papers: January 2019, No. 273.
13 World Bank, World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends, “How the Internet Promotes Development”, 2016.
14 Financial inclusion is defined as the ability to “access and use a range of appropriate and responsibly provided financial services offered in a well-regulated environment.” (UNCDF, Financial Inclusion, available at https://www.uncdf.org/financial-inclusion)
15 World Bank, World Bank Global Findex Database: Measuring Fintech Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution, 2017, available at https://globalfindex.worldbank.org/
16 Mobile money serves as a tool for financial inclusion, allowing those without traditional bank accounts to participate in the economy on a greater level (McKinsey, “Mobile money in emerging markets: The business case for financial inclusion”, March 2018).
17 Women Deliver, “If We Want to Go Far, We Must Go Together”, 21 January 2019, available at https://womendeliver.org/2019/if-you-want-to-go-far-you-must-go-together/
18 Financial Stability Board, “FinTech and market structure in financial services: Market developments and potential financial stability implications”, 14 February 2019, available at https://www.fsb.org/wp-content/uploads/P140219.pdf
19 The Economist, “Financial inclusion in the rich world”, 4 May 2018, available at https://www.economist.com/special-report/2018/05/04/financial-inclusion-in-the-rich-world
20 M-Pesa is a mobile money service that allows users to transfer cash using their mobile phone numbers without the need for a bank account. It serves over 17 million Kenyans and offers loan and savings products as well. See The Economist, “Why does Kenya lead the world in mobile money”. 02 March 2015, available at https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2015/03/02/why-does-kenya-lead-the-world-in-mobile-money
21 Ming Zeng, “Smart Business: What Alibaba Success Reveals about the Future of Strategy”, Harvard Business Review 2018, pp 58-59.
22 Harvard Business School, “Replicating MPESA: Lessons from Vodafone (Safaricom) on why mobile money fails to gain traction in other markets”, 20 November 2016, available at https://rctom.hbs.org/submission/replicating-mpesa-lessons-from-vodafonesafaricom-on-why-mobile-money-fails-to-gain-traction-in-other-markets/
23 Accion, “The game-changing innovation that could bring financial services to millions in India”, 30 October 2017, available at https://www.accion.org/ the-game-changing-innovation-that-could-bring-financial-services-to-millions-in-india
24 GSM Association, State of the Industry Report on Mobile Money 2018, available at https://www.gsma.com/r/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/GSMA-State-of-the-Industry-Report-on-Mobile-Money-2018.pdf
25 World Bank, Global ID4D Dataset, 2017, and World Bank, ID4D-Findex survey.
26 MGI, “Digital Identity: A Key to Inclusive Growth”, MGI (Jan 2019). The report focuses on 7 diverse economies: Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
27 See for example Virginia Eubanks, Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor (St. Martin’s Press, 2018), excerpt available at https://us.macmillan.com/excerptisbn=9781250074317
28 ID4D, available at http://id4d.worldbank.org/
29 MOSIP, available at https://www.mosip.io/
30 Luohan Academy, “Digital Technology and Inclusive Growth”, 2019, available at https://gw.alipayobjects.com/os/antfincdn/DbLN6yXw6H/Luohan_ Academy-Report_2019_Executive_Summary.pdf
31 World Bank: “E-commerce Participation and Household Income Growth in Taobao Villages”, April 2019, available at http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/839451555093213522/pdf/E-Commerce-Participation-and-Household-Income-Growth-in-Taobao-Villages.pdf; World Bank, “E-commerce for poverty alleviation in rural China: from grassroots development to public-private partnerships”, 19 March 2019, available at http://beta-blogs.worldbank.org/eastasiapacific/e-commerce-poverty-alleviation-rural-china-grassroots-development-public-private-partnerships; World Development Report 2016, “E-commerce with Chinese characteristics: inclusion, efficiency and innovation in Taobao villages”.
32 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Information Economy Report 2015, Unlocking the Potential of E-Commerce for Developing Countries, 2015, available at https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/ier2015_en.pdf
33 “Riding the Big Data Wave in 2017”, Medium, 17 April 2017, available at https://medium.com/@Byte_Academy/due-to-an-exponential-increase-in-data-in-the-21st-century-a-new-term-big-data-was-coined-few-8f02a5973023
34 United Nations, The Sustainable Development Goals Report: 2018.
35 World Health Organization, “Civil registration: why counting births and deaths is important”, 30 May 2014, available at https://www.who.int/news-room/ fact-sheets/detail/civil-registration-why-counting-births-and-deaths-is-important
36 The World Bank, PovcalNet, available at http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/povOnDemand.aspx
37 This definition is substantially drawn from Recital 26 of the GDPR which defines anonymized data as “data rendered anonymous in such a way that the data subject is not or no longer identifiable.”
38 United States Agency for International Development, “Fighting Ebola with Information”, available at http://www.digitaldevelopment.org/fighting-ebola-information
39 World Health Organization, Global Strategy on Digital Health, 26 March 2019, available at https://extranet.who.int/dataform/upload/surveys/183439/files/Draft%20Global%20Strategy%20on%20Digital%20Health.pdf
40 CGAIR Platform for Big Data in Agriculture, available at https://bigdata.cgiar.org/
41 Jason Plautz, “Cheap, Portable Sensors are Democratizing Air-Quality Data”, Wired, 7 November 2018, available at https://www.wired.com/story/cheap-portable-sensors-are-democratizing-air-quality-data/
42 For more information on global digital public goods, see: https://digitalpublicgoods.net/public-goods/
43 Paul Krugman and Robin Wells, Microeconomics (Worth Publishers, New York, NY, 2013).
44 See “About India Stack”, available at: https://indiastack.org/about/
45 Pathways to Prosperity Commission, 2018, available at https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx
46 WIRED, “Global Internet Access is Even More Worse than Dire Reports Suggest”, 23 October 2018, available at https://www.wired.com/story/global-internet-access-dire-reports/
47 The index measures 84 countries from 2018-2019. The Economist, The Inclusive Internet Index 2019, available at https://theinclusiveinternet.eiu.com/
48 Ibid.
49 In India nearly two-thirds of urban areas have connectivity, compared to just over a fifth of rural regions. See The Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), Mobile Internet Report, 2017.
50 World Economic Forum, “Delivering Digital Infrastructure Advancing the Internet Economy”, April 2014, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TC_DeliveringDigitalInfrastructure_InternetEconomy_Report_2014.pdf
51 The Alliance for Affordable Internet, available at https://a4ai.org/
52 Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development, available at https://www.broadbandcommission.org/Pages/default.aspx
53 UNICEF, “Project Connect, in Partnership with UNICEF’s Office of Innovation, Launches First of Its Kind, Interactive Map Visualizing the Digital Divide in Education”, 02 November 2017, available at http://unicefstories.org/2017/11/02/schoolmappingprojectconnect/
54 World Bank, “Connecting for Inclusion: Broadband Access for All”, available at http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/digitaldevelopment/brief/connecting-for-inclusion-broadband-access-for-all
55 IEEE Spectrum, “How Project Loon Built the Navigation System That Kept Its Balloons Over Puerto Rico”, 8 March 2018, available at https://spectrum. ieee.org/tech-talk/telecom/internet/how-project-loon-built-the-navigation-system-that-kept-its-balloons-over-puerto-rico
56 Reuters, “Amazon plans to launch over 3,000 satellites to offer broadband internet”, 04 April 2019, available at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-amazon-com-broadband/amazon-plans-to-launch-over-3000-satellites-to-offer-broadband-internet-idUSKCN1RG1YW; Reuters, “U.S. regulator approves SpaceX plan for broadband satellite services”, 29 March 2018, available at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-spacex-fcc/u-s-regulator-approves-spacex-plan-for-broadband-satellite-services-idUSKBN1H537E
57 The Jakarta Post, “Govt to expand broadband connectivity as internet use grows”, 20 February 2018, available at https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2018/02/20/govt-to-expand-broadband-connectivity-as-internet-use-grows.html
58 ITU, “Universal Service Fund and Digital Inclusion for All Study”, June 2013, available at https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Conferences/GSR/Documents/ITU%20USF%20Final%20Report.pdf
59 One example of building internet access around community needs, in this case health, is a collaboration between the Basic Internet Foundation and health centres in Tanzania; see Vision 2030, available at https://www.vision2030.no/index.php/en/visjon2030-projects/non-discriminating-access-for-digital-inclusion. The Panel has been informed that a ‘common bid’ for connectivity is being prepared by ITU, UNICEF and the World Bank.
60 BBC, Video: Internet access in Africa – Are mesh networks the future, 28 March 2019, available at https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-47723967. There is another example from rural England of the power of a cooperative approach: farmers waived right of way charges and volunteered to help dig up trenches for fibre optic cable in exchange for shares in the network. See ISPreview, “B4RN Set to Hit 5000 Rural UK FTTH Broadband Connections Target”, 11 September 2018, available at https://www.ispreview.co.uk/index.php/2018/09/b4rn-set-to-hit-5000-rural-uk-ftth-broadband-connections-target.html
61 Alliance for Affordable Internet, available at https://a4ai.org/rethinking-affordable-access/
62 Written contribution, Centre for Socio-Economic Development. This does not take away from the tremendous role that digital technologies have played in improving the lives of people with disabilities.
63 UNESCO, “Multilingualism in Cyberspace: Indigenous Languages for Empowerment”, 27-28 November 2015, available at http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/multilingualism_in_cyberspace_concept_paper_en.pdf; Brookings Institute, “Rural and urban America divided by broadband access”, 18 July 2016, available at https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2016/07/18/rural-and-urban-america-divided-by-broadband-access/
64 ITU Facts and Figures 2017, available at https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/facts/ICTFactsFigures2017.pdf
65 Pathways for Prosperity Commission, Digital Lives: Meaningful Connections for the Next 3 Billion, 2018, available at https://pathwayscommission.bsg. ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2018-11/digital_lives_report.pdf
66 Recognising the importance of marketing in addressing socio-cultural issues, the Unstereotype alliance, an initiative convened by UN Women, unites leaders from across business technology and creative industries to use marketing-based techniques to combat gender stereotypes. Available at http://www.unstereotypealliance.org/en/about
67 The OECD and WTO-led inter-agency Task Force on International Trade Statistics is one example of work being undertaken by the OECD and others to update traditional metrics of macroeconomic change and trade flows (OECD, Toward a Framework for Measuring the Digital Economy, 19-21 September 2018). The G20 Toolkit for Measuring the Digital Economy identifies methodologies to measure the digital economy as well as gaps and challenges surrounding measurement; (G20 Digital Economy Ministerial Declaration, available at http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/2018/2018-08-24-digital.html#annex3). The ITU’s ICT Development Index (IDI) measures the level and evolution over time of ICT developments across developed and developing countries (available at https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/publications/mis/methodology.aspx). The EIU Index covers 100 countries as of 2019 using benchmarks of national digital inclusion across readiness, relevance, affordability, and availability (Ibid).
68 The World Bank, World Development Report: The Changing Nature of Work, 2019.
69 Thereza Balliester and Adam Elsheikhi, “The Future of Work: A Literature Review”, March 2018, available at https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—dgreports/—inst/documents/publication/wcms_625866.pdf
70 Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, The Future Of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs To Computerisation? (Oxford Martin School, 2013), available at https://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf
71 Towards data science, “Humanities Graduates Should Consider Data Science”, 31 August 2017, available at https://towardsdatascience.com/humanities-graduates-should-consider-data-science-d9fc78735b0c
72 Tim Noonan, Director, International Trade Union Confederation, interview, 25 January 2019.
73 CNBC, “The future of work won’t be about college degrees, it will be about job skills”, 31 October 2018, available at https://www.cnbc.com/2018/10/31/the-future-of-work-wont-be-about-degrees-it-will-be-about-skills.html
74 The Guardian, “All flexibility, no security: why conservative think tanks are wrong on the gig economy”, 23 January 2019, available on https://www.theguardian.com/business/grogonomics/2019/jan/24/all-flexibility-no-security-why-conservative-thinktanks-are-wrong-on-the-gig-economy
75 International Labour Organization, “Helping the gig economy work better for gig workers”, available at https://www.ilo.org/washington/WCMS_642303/lang–en/index.htm
76 Klaus Schoemann, “Digital Technology to Support the Trade Union Movement”, Open Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 06 No. 01 (2018), available at https://file.scirp.org/Html/5-1761684_81823.htm
77 WIPO, “The informal economy in developing nations: a hidden engine of growth”, June 2017, available at https://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2017/03/article_0006.html
78 OECD, “Tax and Digitalisation”, March 2019, available at www.oecd.org/going-digital/tax-and-digitalisation.pdf
79 South Center, “The WTO’s Discussions on Electronic Commerce”, January 2017, available at https://www.southcentre.int/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/ AN_TDP_2017_2_The-WTO%E2%80%99s-Discussions-on-Electronic-Commerce_EN.pdf
80 European Commission, “76 WTO partners launch talks on e-commerce”, 25 January 2019, available at http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=1974
81 UNCTAD, Trade and Development Report 2018: Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion, Chapter III.
82 OECD, “Vectors of Digital Transformation” (OECD Publishing, Paris, 22 January 2019).
83 Michael Mandel, Data, Trade and Growth, Progressive Policy Institute, April 2014, available at https://www.progressivepolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/2014.04-Mandel_Data-Trade-and-Growth.pdf
84 Parminder Jeet Singh, “Digital Industrialisation in Developing Countries”, paper for the Commonwealth Secretariat, 2018.
85 OECD, “Tax and Digitalisation”, March 2019, available at www.oecd.org/going-digital/tax-and-digitalisation.pdf
86 OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Shifting Project, Tax Challenges Arising from Digitalisation, Interim report 2018, available at: https://read.oecd-library.org/taxation/tax-challenges-arising-from-digitalisation-interim-report_9789264293083-en#page3; Esquire, “Silicon Valley’s Tax-Avoiding, Job-Killing, Soul-Sucking Machine”, available at https://www.esquire.com/news-politics/a15895746/bust-big-tech-silicon-valley/
87 OECD, Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, available at https://www.oecd.org/tax/beps/
88 Bloomberg Tax, “What’s Next for Countries Going it Alone on Digital Taxes”, 21 March, 2019, available at https://news.bloombergtax.com/daily-tax-report-international/whats-next-for-countries-going-it-alone-on-digital-tax
89 KPMG, “Taxation of Digital Assets: New Laws Issued”, 15 May 2018, available at https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/insights/2018/05/tax-news-flash-issue-380.html
90 Jean Tirole, “Regulating Disrupters”, Project Syndicate, 9 January 2019, available at www.project-syndicate.org/onpoint/regulating-the-disrupters-by-jean-tirole-2019-01?barrier=accesspaylog.
91 For more on these processes, see Jean Tirole, Economics for the Common Good (Princeton University Press, 2016).
92 Since 1979, the International Conference of Data Protection & Privacy Commissioners (ICDPPC) has provided a forum for connecting the efforts of 122 data protection and privacy authorities from across the globe; and since 2001, the International Competition Network (ICN) has provided a specialised yet informal venue for maintaining regular dialogue across the global antitrust community to build procedural and substantive convergence and address practical competition concerns for the benefit of consumers and economies.
93 The National Institute for Transparency, Access to Information and Personal Data Protection (INAI) is an autonomous constitutional body responsible for upholding the right to access to public information. It is also in charge of upholding the right to protection of personal data held by the public and the private sectors. See http://www.networkforintegrity.org/continents/america/instituto-nacional-de-transparencia-acceso-a-la-informacion-y-proteccion-de-datos-personales-inai/
94 OECD, “Strengthening digital government”, OECD Going Digital Policy Note, OECD Paris, March 2019, available at www.oecd.org/going-digital/strengthening-digital-government.pdf
95 See Creators, available at https://www.creatorspad.com/pages/govtech-program
96 Infocomm Media Development Corporation, available at https://www.imda.gov.sg/imtalent/training-and-courses
97 Minister Omar Al Olama, Remarks at the World Government Summit, 10 February 2019.
98 The Verge, “The mass shooting in New Zealand was designed to spread on social media”, 15 March 2019, available on https://www.theverge.com/2019/3/15/18266859/new-zealand-shooting-video-social-media-manipulation
99 Myanmar went from minimal connectivity in 2013 to virtually half the population in 2016 owning smartphones. Facebook became the dominant communications platform almost by accident. See Reuters, “Why Facebook is losing the war on hate speech in Myanmar”, 15 August 2018, available at https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/myanmar-facebook-hate/
100 National Public Radio, “#Gamergate Controversy Fuels Debate On Women And Video Games”, 24 September 2014, available at https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2014/09/24/349835297/-gamergate-controversy-fuels-debate-on-women-and-video-games
101 The Guardian, “Instagram bans ‘graphic’ self-harm images after Molly Russell’s death”, 7 February 2019, available at https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/feb/07/instagram-bans-graphic-self-harm-images-after-molly-russells-death
102 Hindustan Times, “24-yr-old commits suicide after being bullied for dressing up as a woman”, 19 October 2019, available at
103 Ofcom and UK Information Commissioner’s Office, “Internet users’ experience of harm online: summary of survey research”, July 2018, available at https://www.ofcom.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/120852/Internet-harm-research-2018-report.pdf
104 NSPCC, “Net Aware report 2017: ‘Freedom to express myself safely’”, 04 September 2018, available at https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/research-resources/2017/net-aware-report-2017-freedom-to-express-myself-safely/
105 India alone had over 100 incidents in 2018. See Freedom House, “Freedom on the Net 2018”, October 2018, available at https://freedomhouse.org/ sites/default/files/FOTN_2018_Final%20Booklet_11_1_2018.pdf
106 United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “Human Rights Appeal 2019”, 17 January 2019, available at https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/AnnualAppeal2019.pdf
107 Electronic Frontier Foundation, “India’s Supreme Court Upholds Right to Privacy as a Fundamental Right”, 27 August 2017, available at https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2017/08/indias-supreme-court-upholds-right-privacy-fundamental-right-and-its-about-time
108 Written contribution, the Paradigm Initiative. The bill has not received presidential assent.
109 United Nations Children’s Fund, United Nations Global Compact, Save the Children, “Children’s Rights and Business Principles”, 03 March 2012, available at https://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/human_rights/CRBP/Childrens_Rights_and_Business_Principles.pdf
110 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, “Steering AI and Advanced ICTs for Knowledge Societies”, available at https://en.unesco.org/system/files/unesco-steering_ai_for_knowledge_societies.pdf
111 Council of Europe, Freedom of Expression, Standard Setting, available at https:/www.coe.int/en/web/freedom-expression/internet-standard-setting; and European Court of Human Rights decisions, for example, in the case of Ahmet Yildirim v. Turkey, available at https://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng#{%22itemid%22:[%22001-115705%22]}
112 IFEX, “Saudi Arabia arrests at least 13 more human rights defenders”, 14 April 2019.
113 UN Global Compact “Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework”, 2011, available at https://www.unglobalcompact.org/library/2
114 The Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, available at https://www.business-humanrights.org/
115 A Corporate Accountability Index is published annually by Ranking Digital Rights. Available at https://rankingdigitalrights.org/
116 Carnegie UK Trust, “Reducing harm in social media through a duty of care”, 08 May 2018, available at https://www.carnegieuktrust.org.uk/blog/reducing-harm-social-media-duty-care/
117 Pew Research Trust, “Online Harassment 2017”, 11 July 2017, available at https://www.pewinternet.org/2017/07/11/online-harassment-2017/
118 Amanda and Noel Sharkey, “Granny and the robots: ethical issues in robot care for the elderly”, University of Sheffield, 03 July 2010.
119 United Nations Children’s Fund, “One in Three: Internet Governance and Children’s Rights”, discussion paper, 2016.
120 U.S. Government Publishing Office, “Electronic Code of Federal Regulation”, 26 April 2019, available at https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=4939e77c77a1a1a08c1cbf905fc4b409&node=16%3A1.; UK Information Commissioner’s Office, “Age appropriate design: a code of practice for online services”, 15 April 2019, available at https://ico.org.uk/media/about-the-ico/consultations/2614762/age-appropriate-design-code-for-public-consultation.pdf
121 Elon University, “Survey X: Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Humans”, 2018, available at http://www.elon.edu/e-web/imagining/surveys/2018_survey/AI_and_the_Future_of_Humans.xhtml
122 Pedro Domingos, The Master Algorithm: How the quest for the ultimate learning machine will remake our world (Basic Books, 2015).
123 Cathy O’Neil, Weapons of Math Destruction (The Crown Publishing Group, 2016); Digital Society, “Human rights in the robot age – Challenges arising from the use of robotics, artificial intelligence, and virtual and augmented reality”, 11 October 2017; Umoja Noble, “Algorithms of Oppression – How Search Engines Reinforce Racism”, 08 January 2018, available at https://nyupress.org/9781479837243/algorithms-of-oppression/
124 Investors and founders are finally waking up to the gender problem in tech after high-profile scandals and walkouts by employees at companies such as Google. See Aliya Ram, “Tech investors put #MeToo clauses in deals”, Financial Times, 22 March 2019.
125 Virginia Eubanks, Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor (St. Martin’s Press, 2018); excerpt available at https://us.macmillan.com/excerpt?isbn=9781250074317
126 Harvard Law Today, “Algorithms and their unintended consequences for the poor”, 07 November 2018, available at https://today.law.harvard.edu/algorithms-and-their-unintended-consequences-for-the-poor/
127 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, “Ethically Aligned Design: A Vision for Prioritizing Human Well-being with Autonomous and Intelligent Systems”, available at https://standards.ieee.org/content/dam/ieee-standards/standards/web/documents/other/ead_v2.pdf
128 One important discussion is on the applicability of International Humanitarian Law and accountability thereunder for the use of military systems that might deploy AI. See Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, “Report of the 2018 session of the Group of Governmental Experts on Emerging Technologies in the Area of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems”, 23 October 2018, available at https://undocs.org/en/CCW/GGE.1/2018/3
129 Wendell Wallach, An Agile Ethical/Legal Model for the International and National Governance of AI and Robotics (Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, 2018).
130 António Guterres, United Nations Secretary-General, remarks at the Web Summit, Lisbon, 05 November 2018, available at https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/speeches/2018-11-05/remarks-web-summit; “Autonomous weapons that kill must be banned, insists UN chief”, March 29, 2019, available at https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/03/1035381
131 Provisions similar to the U.S. Fourth Amendment exist in several Constitutions and the 1980 OECD Guidelines codified 8 principles that have influenced privacy regulations since then. These were updated in 2013 as Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Trans-border Flows of Personal Data and are available at https://www.oecd.org/sti/ieconomy/oecd_privacy_framework.pdf
132 David Dodwell, “The integration of mass surveillance and new digital technologies is unnerving”, The South China Morning Post, 17 February 2018, available at https://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-opinion/article/2133617/integration-mass-surveillance-and-new-digital-technologies; United Nations General Assembly, Summary of the Human Rights Council penal discussion on the right to privacy in the digital age, 19 December 2014.
133 The 2016 Privacy Shield framework (earlier Safe Harbor), which governs personal data flows between the U.S. and the E.U. and Switzerland based on self-certification by companies, is an example of the former; available at https://www.privacyshield.gov/welcome
134 National Public Radio, “A year after San Bernadino and Apple-FBI, where are we on encryption”, 3 December 2016, available at https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2016/12/03/504130977/a-year-after-san-bernardino-and-apple-fbi-where-are-we-on-encryption?t=1532518316108
135 For example, Australia’s Telecommunications and Other Legislation Amendment (Assistance and Access) Act 2018, available at https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2018A00148
136 U.S. Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data Act (CLOUD Act, H.R. 4943).
137 Brave automatically blocks ad trackers (ad trackers collect data from users’ online behaviours for the purpose of boosting the effectiveness of ads and marketing campaigns). DuckDuckGo does not track user search behaviours.
138 UK Open Data Institute, “UK’s first ‘data trust’ pilots to be led by the ODI in partnership with central and local government”, 20 November 2018, available at https://theodi.org/article/uks-first-data-trust-pilots-to-be-led-by-the-odi-in-partnership-with-central-and-local-government/
139 India Stack, “About Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture”, available at https://indiastack.org/depa/
140 United Nations Secretary-General, Address to the General Assembly, 25 September 2018, available at https://www.un.org/sg/en/content/sg/speeches/2018-09-25/address-73rd-general-assembly
141 Mareike Möhlmann and Andrea Geissinger, Trust in the Sharing Economy: Platform-Mediated Peer Trust ( Cambridge University Press, July 2018), available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326346569_Trust_in_the_Sharing_Economy_Platform-Mediated_Peer_Trust
142 European Political Strategy Centre, “Report from the High Level-Hearing: Preserving Democracy in the Digital Age”, 22 February 2018, available at https://ec.europa.eu/epsc/sites/epsc/files/epsc_-_report_-_hearing_on_preserving_democracy_in_the_digital_age.pdf
143 The Guardian, “You thought fake news was bad? Deep fakes are where truth goes die”, 12 November 2018, available at: https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/nov/12/deep-fakes-fake-news-truth
144 Kai-Fu Lee, AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order (Houghton Miller Harcourt, 2018), available at https://aisuperpowers.com/
145 Here capacity is understood as “the ability of people, organizations, systems of organizations, and society as a whole to define and solve problems, make informed choices, order their priorities, plan their futures, and to implement programmes and projects to sustain them.” See Swiss Agency of Development and Cooperation, “Glossary Knowledge Management and Capacity Development”, available at https://bit.ly/2FwORDl
146 5Rights Foundation, “5Rights Partner with BT to Co-Create with Children on Digital Literacy”, 2017, available at https://5rightsfoundation.com/in-action/5rights-partner-with-bt-to-co-create-with-children-on-digital-literacy.html
147 United Nations Volunteers, “Shape the Future of Volunteering: Online Conversations”, 25 April 2019, available at https://www.unv.org/planofaction/dialogues
148 The Times of India, “Fake news: WhatsApp, DEF host training for community leaders in Jaipur”, 19 November 2018.
149 The “security by design” approach is described in the 2015 White Paper of Amazon Web Services, available at https://www.logicworks.com/wp-content/ uploads/2017/01/Intro_to_Security_by_Design.pdf; the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) contains the “privacy by design” principle; some examples of what it means in practice are available at https://ec.europa.eu/info/law/law-topic/data-protection/reform/rules-business-and-organisations/obligations/what-does-data-protection-design-and-default-mean_en.
150 European Commission, Final Report of the High Level Expert Group on Fake News and Online Disinformation, 12 March 2018, available at https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/final-report-high-level-expert-group-fake-news-and-online-disinformation; Facebook, “Protecting Elections in the EU”, 28 March 2019.
151 See for example Joseph Nye, “Nuclear Learning and U.S.-Soviet security regimes”, International Organization, 41, 3, (1987), p. 371-402; Emmanuel Adler, “The emergence of cooperation: national epistemic communities and the international evolution of the idea of nuclear arms control”, International Organization, 46, (1992), p. 101-145; Clifton Parker, “Cooperation of U.S., Russian Scientists Helped Avoid Nuclear Catastrophe at Cold War’s End, CISAC Scholar Says”, June 28, 2016, available at https://cisac.fsi.stanford.edu/news/cooperation-us-russian-scientists-helped-avoid-nuclear-catastrophe-cold-war%E2%80%99s-end-says-cisac
152 World Economic Forum, The Global Risks Report 2019, 15 January 2019, available at https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-risks-report-2019
153 World Economic Forum Global Risks Perception Survey 2018-2019.
154 WIRED, “That Insane, $81m Bangladesh Bank Heist? Here’s What We Know”, 17 May 2016, available at https://www.wired.com/2016/05/insane-81m-bangladesh-bank-heist-heres-know/
155 CBS, “What can we learn from the ‘most devastating’ cyberattack in history?”, 22 August 2018, available at https://www.cbsnews.com/news/lessons-to-learn-from-devastating-notpetya-cyberattack-wired-investigation/
156 Bromium, Inc., “Hyper-Connected Web Of Profit Emerges, As Global Cybercriminal Revenues Hit $1.5 Trillion Annually”, 20 August 2018, available at https://www.bromium.com/press-release/hyper-connected-web-of-profit-emerges-as-global-cybercriminal-revenues-hit-1-5-trillion-annually/
157 Business Insider, “Travis Kalanick lasted in his role for 6.5 years — five times longer than the average Uber employee”, 20 August 2017, available at https://www.businessinsider.com/employee-retention-rate-top-tech-companies-2017-8
158 Symantec, Internet Security Threat Report, April 2016, available at https://www.nu.nl/files/nutech/Rapport-Symantec2016.pdf
159 Europol’s Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA) 2018 has a summary of the evolving threat environment; Japan’s National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) estimates on the basis of scans of the darknet that 54% of the attacks it detected in 2017 targeted IoT devices: see NICT, “The ‘NOTICE’ Project to Survey IoT Devices and to Alert Users”, 1 February 2019.
160 IOT Analytics, “State of the IoT 2018, Number of IoT devices now at 7B – Market accelerating”, 08 August 2018, available at https://iot-analytics.com/ state-of-the-iot-update-q1-q2-2018-number-of-iot-devices-now-7b/
161 CBS, “Stuxnet: Computer Worm Opens Era of Warfare”, 04 June 2012, available at https://www.cbsnews.com/news/stuxnet-computer-worm-opens-new-era-of-warfare-04-06-2012/
162 CNN, “US announces new set of Russia Sanctions”, 20 December 2018, available at https://edition.cnn.com/2018/12/19/politics/us-treasury-russia/index.html; The New York Times, “Signs of Russian Meddling in Brexit Referendum”, 15 November 2017, available at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/15/world/europe/russia-brexit-twitter-facebook.html
163 Gail Kent, Stanford Law School Center for Internet and Society, “The Mutual Legal Assistance Problem Explained”, 23 February 2015, available at http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/blog/2015/02/mutual-legal-assistance-problem-explained
164 Bloomberg, “Huawei Reveals the Real Trade War with China”, 6 December 2018; Associated Press, “German leader Angela Merkel testifies on alleged U.S. surveillance revealed by Snowden, 16 February 2017 and “Costs of Snowden leak still mounting 5 years later”, 4 June 2018.
165 TechRepublic, “Governments and nation states are now officially training for cyberwarfare: An inside look”, 1 September 2016, available at https://www.techrepublic.com/article/governments-and-nation-states-are-now-officially-training-for-cyberwarfare-an-inside-look/
166 The Wall Street Journal, “Cyberwar Ignites a New Arms Race”, 11 October 2015; The Wall Street Journal, “Cataloging the World’s Cyberforces”, 11 October 2015.
167 The Register, “Everything you need to know about the Petya, er, NotPetya nasty trashing PCs worldwide”, 28 June 2017.
168 IBM researchers have shown it is possible to conceal known malware in video-conferencing software and trigger it when it sees a specific individual, available at https://securityintelligence.com/deeplocker-how-ai-can-power-a-stealthy-new-breed-of-malware/
169 Russia placed information security on the agenda of the UN in 1998. Since then several Groups of Governmental Experts have studied ICT security and three of them have adopted reports by consensus. See https://www.un.org/disarmament/ict-security/ and https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/paris_call_cyber_cle443433-1.pdf
170 They are composed on the basis of equitable geographical distribution, and each has included the five permanent members of the UN Security Council.
171 UN GGE report of 2013 (A/68/98), paragraph 19, available at https://undocs.org/A/68/98; reconfirmed by the UN GGE report of 2015 (A/70/174),
paragraph 24, available at https://undocs.org/A/70/174
172 United Nations General Assembly, Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security, report A/70/174, page 13, 22 July 2015, available at http://undocs.org/A/70/174
173 Government of France, “Cybersecurity: Paris Call of 12 November 2018 for Trust and Security in Cyberspace”, available at https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/french-foreign-policy/digital-diplomacy/france-and-cyber-security/article/cybersecurity-paris-call-of-12-november-2018-for-trust-and-security-in
174 Cybersecurity Tech Accord, available at https://cybertechaccord.org; Siemens, Charter of Trust, available at https://www.siemens.com/press/pool/de/feature/2018/corporate/2018-02-cybersecurity/charter-of-trust-e.pdf
175 The case has been made strongly in recent studies such as Samir Saran (ed.), Our Common Digital Future (GCCS and ORF, 2017), available at https:// www.orfonline.org/research/our-common-digital-future-gccs-2017/
176 United Nations General Assembly, “Advancing responsible State behaviour in cyberspace in the context of international security”, 18 October 2018, available at https://undocs.org/A/C.1/73/L.37
177 United National General Assembly, “Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the context of international security”, 29 October 2019, available at https://undocs.org/A/C.1/73/L.27/Rev.1
178 Oman ITU-Arab Regional Cybersecurity Centre, available at https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Cybersecurity/Pages/Global-Partners/oman-itu-arab-regional-cybersecurity-centre.aspx
179 CSIRTs Network, available at https://www.enisa.europa.eu/topics/csirts-in-europe/csirts-network
180 Cathy Mulligan, “A Call to (Software) Arms”, LinkedIn, 30 March 2019.
181 International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 27034, 2011; SAFECode, Fundamental Practices for Secure Software Development, March 2018, available at https://safecode.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/SAFECode_Fundamental_Practices_for_Secure_Software_Development_March_2018.pdf; SAFECode, Managing Security Risks Inherent in the Use of Third-Party Components, 2017, available at https://www.safecode.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/SAFECode_TPC_Whitepaper.pdf; SAFECode, Tactical Threat Modeling, 2017, available at https://www.safecode.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/SAFECode_TM_Whitepaper.pdf; and Microsoft, Security Development Lifecycle. Microsoft, available at https://www.microsoft.com/ en-us/securityengineering/sdl.
182 The Global Cybersecurity Capacity Centre at Oxford University has created a repository of existing efforts in partnership with the GFCE: the Cybersecurity Capacity Portal, available at https://www.sbs.ox.ac.uk/cybersecurity-capacity/explore/gfce. The report “Cybersecurity Competence Building Trends” provides examples of public-private partnerships in OECD countries: see Diplo, Cybersecurity Competence Building Trends, 2016.
183 Cybersecurity Ventures, “Cybersecurity Jobs Report 2018-2021”, 31 May 2017, available at https://cybersecurityventures.com/jobs/. The Delhi Communiqué on a GFCE Global Agenda for Cyber Capacity Building provides a framework for such efforts: see GFCE, Delhi Communiqué, 2017, available at https://www.thegfce.com/delhi-communique
184 OECD, “Unlocking the potential of e-commerce”, OECD Going Digital Policy Note, OECD, Paris, 2019, available at www.oecd.org/going-digital/unlocking-the-potential-of-e-commerce.pdf. Page 2 notes that “SMEs could also benefit from multistakeholder initiatives such as the Electronic World Trade Platform, which aims to foster a more effective policy environment for online trading”.
185 In the areas of cybersecurity and cybercrime, for example, national laws and regional and international conventions create frameworks for digital cooperation in addressing cyber-risks. One example is the Council of Europe Cybercrime Convention, available at https://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/185
186 Content policy is one area where there are many examples of “soft law” instruments, such as the “Code of conduct on countering illegal hate speech online” (agreed in 2016 by the European Commission and major internet companies; available at https://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/just/item-detail.cfm?item_id=54300), the “Manila Principles on Internet Intermediaries” (developed in 2015 by the Electronic Frontier Foundation and other civil society groups and endorsed by many entities, available at https://www.manilaprinciples.org), and the “Guidelines for industry on child protection online” (initially developed in 2015 through a consultative process led by the International Telecommunication Union and UNICEF, available at https://www.unicef.org/csr/files/COP_Guidelines_English.pdf).
187 The Internet Governance Forum can be seen as a loosely organised framework for digital cooperation (more details at https://www.intgovforum.org/ multilingual/tags/about), while the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (with its multiple advisory committees and supporting organisations) can be seen as a more institutionalised framework (more details at https://www.icann.org/resources/pages/groups-2012-02-06-en).
188 The Internet Engineering Task Force, for example, develops technical standards for the internet (more details at https://www.ietf.org/standards/), while the European Commission’s High Level Group on Internet Governance has the role of facilitating coordination among EU member states on internet governance issues (more details at http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regexpert/index.cfm?do=groupDetail.groupDetail&groupID=2450).
189 See Anderson, C., Cyber Security and the Need for International Governance (Southern University Law Center 24 April 2016).
190 Paragraph 72 of the WSIS Agenda lists this and other functions of the IGF. Available at https://www.itu.int/net/wsis/docs2/tunis/off/6rev1.html
191 NETmundial, “NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement”, April 2014, available at http://netmundial.br/netmundial-multistakeholder-statement/
192 Global Commission on Internet Governance, “One Internet”, June 2016, available at https://www.cigionline.org/publications/one-internet
193 World Wide Web Foundation, “Contract for the Web”, available at https://contractfortheweb.org
194 Government of France, “France and Canada Create new Expert International Panel on Artificial Intelligence”, 7 December 2018, available at https://www. gouvernement.fr/en/france-and-canada-create-new-expert-international-panel-on-artificial-intelligence
195 In 2016, at the G20 Summit in Hangzhou the G20 leaders adopted a “G20 Digital Economy Development and Cooperation Initiative”, available at https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000185874.pdf. Annual G20 Digital Economy Ministerial Meetings have been held since 2017.
196 UN Secretary-General António Guterres, Address to the Internet Governance Forum 2018, available at http://www.intgovforum.org/multilingual/content/igf-2018-address-to-the-internet-governance-forum-by-un-sg-antónio-guterres
197 Many documents and publications released over the past decade underline the need for better inclusion of underrepresented communities in internet governance and digital policy processes. Examples include the report of the Working Group on Improvements to the Internet Governance Forum, 2012, available at https://unctad.org/meetings/en/SessionalDocuments/a67d65_en.pdf, and the NetMundial Multistakeholder Statement, 2014, available at http://netmundial.br/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/NETmundial-Multistakeholder-Document.pdf. ICANN has also recognised the need for better inclusion of under-represented communities and is working on addressing this through initiatives such as its Fellowship Program (more details at https://www.icann.org/fellowshipprogram).
198 According to the updated estimate of the 2014 UNCTAD study, there are more than 680 digital cooperation mechanisms developed and used by governments, businesses, technical and international organisations. See United Nations Commission Mapping of International Internet Public Policy Issues, E/CN.16/2015/CRP.2, 17 April 2015, available at https://unctad.org/meetings/en/SessionalDocuments/ecn162015crp2_en.pdf
199 One recent example is the impact of the introduction of the GDPR on ICANN’s policies concerning the collection and publication of domain name registration data. When the GDPR requested that data on EU registrants be made private, ICANN was unprepared to adapt its so-called WHOIS policies to the new EU regulation. A coordination mechanism for interdisciplinary policy approaches could have helped ICANN be better prepared for the GDPR.
200 CSIS, “Economic Impact of Cybercrime – No Slowing Down”, February 2018, available at https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/publication/economic-impact-cybercrime.pdf
201 Cybersecurity Ventures, 2017 Cybercrime Report, 2017.
202 Digital Full Potential, “Artificial Intelligence Market Size Projected to Be $60 Billion by 2025”.
203 MarketWatch, “The Global Artificial Intelligence (AI) Market by Technology and Industry Vertical – A $169.4 Billion Opportunity by 2025 – ResearchAndMarkets.com”, 24 August 2018.
204 WSIS, available at https://www.itu.int/net/wsis/; UNESCO ROAM Principles, available at https://en.unesco.org/internetuniversality/indicators; NETmundial, available at https://netmundial.org/
205 The IGF Plus proposal builds on previous policy and academic discussions on strengthening the Internet Governance Forum, including: Report of the Working Group on Improvements to the Internet Governance Forum, 2012, available at https://unctad.org/meetings/en/SessionalDocuments/a67d65_en.pdf; Milton Mueller and Ben Wagner, “Finding a Formula for Brazil: Representation and Legitimacy in Internet Governance,” Internet Policy Observatory, February 2014, available at https://global.asc.upenn.edu/app/uploads/2014/09/Finding-a-Formula-for-Brazil-Representation-and-Legitimacy-in-Internet-Governance.pdf; IGF Retreat Proceedings: Advancing the 10-Year Mandate of the Internet Governance Forum, July 2016, New York, available at https://www.intgovforum.org/multilingual/content/igf-retreat-documents; Wolfgang Kleinwächter, “The Start of a New Beginning: The Internet Governance Forum on Its Road to 2025”, CircleID, 3 April 2016, available at http://www.circleid.com/posts/20160403_start_of_a_new_beginning_the_internet_governance_forum/; Raúl Echeberría, “Let’s Reform the IGF to Ensure Its Healthy Future”, Internet Society blog, 17 March 2018, available at https://www.internetsociety.org/blog/2018/03/lets-reform-igf-ensure-healthy-future/ the WSIS Tunis Agenda for the Information Society, Tunis, United Nations, available at https://www.itu.int/net/wsis/docs2/tunis/off/6rev1.html. In addition to the IGF, the other outcomes of the WSIS process are action line follow-ups (WSIS Forum), system-wide follow-up (UN CSTD), and enhanced cooperation.
206 As of 31 May 2019 there were 82 national, 17 regional and 16 youth Internet Governance Forums.
207 This approach was developed by the World Bank and 4IRC. In Singapore, the Technology Office of the Prime Minister developed mechanisms that enable continuity, dialogue, feedback loops, and agility in decision-making, particularly in relation to experimentation or piloting of new technologies.
208 On the applicability of the concept of global public good to the internet please refer to https://www.diplomacy.edu/calendar/internet-global-public-resource
209 Malta proposed that the UN consider the internet as a common heritage of mankind. See Statement by Dr. Alex Sceberras Trigona, Special Envoy of the Prime Minister of Malta, World Summit on Information Society Review Process, New York, 15 November 2015, available at https://www.academia.edu/19974250/Protecting_the_Internet_as_Common_Heritage_of_Mankind
210 The data commons idea has emerged over the past year at the ITU’s AI for Good Summit and the World Government Summit. See https://news.itu.int/roadmap-zero-to-ai-and-data-commons/ and http://the-levant.com/uae-world-leader-ai-global-data-commons-roundtable
211 Members of the International Chamber of Commerce pay an annual membership fee, set either by ICC national committees (where they exist) or by the ICC itself (for direct members). More details at https://iccwbo.org/become-a-member/joining-icc-direct-member/
212 United Nations Secretary-General’s Task Force on Digital Financing of the SDGs, available at https://digitalfinancingtaskforce.org/
213 One of the first regulatory sandboxes was launched in 2015 in the UK; at the beginning of 2018, there were more than 20 jurisdictions actively implementing or exploring the concept. See Briefing by UN Secretary-General’s Special Advocate for Inclusive Finance, available at https://www.unsgsa.org/files/1915/3141/8033/Sandbox.pdf
214 We understand ‘inclusion’ to be more than simple participation of a few ‘missing actors’ in digital events. Meaningful representation requires bottom-up capacity development, preparatory discussions and inter-ministerial coordination at the national level.

Source: https://comment.eurodig.org/digital-cooperation-report/notes/